Il talismano della dea (Italian Edition)

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Little by little she began to adorn herself, [] she received offers of marriage which by no means shocked her, [33] she became reconciled to the life of the world for which she was so perfectly fitted by nature. The young man, however—we do not know his name—was not easily discouraged, and, renewing his suit, was accepted. So she was married perhaps when she was about fifteen years old, in Her beauty [] was famous, and she seems scarcely to have been married when she gave herself up to all the voluptuousness of her nature, more or less mute in the convent.

That she could read we know, for she read not only Giovanni's letters, but Ovid, [] probably a translation of the Ars Amandi , and the French Romances. Her husband's house, too, was in such a position that not only the citizens, but strangers, who must on arrival or departure pass it by, might spy her at her window or on her balcony. But no sooner was the fire spent than I broke the vase which contained the water and flung away the pieces. Such, then, was the blonde Fiammetta whom Boccaccio loved. But how could he, a mere merchant's son, ever hope to reach the arms of this disdainful, indifferent lady?

By means of poetry?

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It seems so. But before replying fully [35] to this question it will be necessary to establish the chronological limits and divisions of this love affair, and this is the most difficult question in all the difficult history of the youth of Boccaccio. We may find, as it happens, two dates to begin with in the Amorosa Visione.

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They have not escaped Crescini, [] who, founding himself on them, has concluded, though not too certainly, that between the day of innamoramento and that of possesso completo days passed. He arrives at this tentative conclusion in the following manner. In chapter xliv. Then he began to make fun of himself, "farsi beffa," for having thought of a lady so far above him. But at last, when.

But, said she, one ought to serve her only, and not to run after other ladies. Crescini interprets this to mean that twenty-four days after Boccaccio first saw Fiammetta, she gave him reason to hope. And he arrives at this conclusion because he considers that the sun is in conjunction with the horizon only once a day, whereas it might seem to be so twice a day, at sunrise as at sunset.

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  • The other days of Crescini's chronology come from the following verses of chapter xlvi. Della Torre, [] however, will have none of this reckoning, and seems to have proved that it is indeed inexact. To begin with, according to the Ptolemaic system, the sun moved round the earth and touched it as it were not only at its rising but also at its setting, so that the twenty-four days become twelve. This, however, is but a small matter, merely reducing the days to Crescini's chief error, according to Della Torre, is that he has added the first period of twelve or twenty-four days to the second of —making them immediately consecutive.

    Let us examine this matter somewhat closely. In the Ameto Boccaccio tells us that the happy night which came at the end of the days, the night in which he possessed Fiammetta, fell "temperante Apollo i veleni freddi di Scorpione.

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    The sun then entered Scorpio on the 17th October and left it on the 14th November. Boccaccio tells us, if we interpret him aright, that twelve days after his innamoramento his lady showed him that she [37] was pleased by his love. He then passes on to describe the long and faithful service he gave her:—. Casi reggendo la mia voluntate," [].

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    Di gentilezza pieni e di valore," []. Taken thus we may divide the story of his love for Fiammetta into three periods. The first of these ends twelve days after the first meeting, and is the period of uncertainty. The second period is that in which he is accepted as courtier, as it were, on his trial. The third begins when his lady, moved by long service and repeated proofs of his devotions, returns his love; it is the period of "dolce signoria" and lasts one hundred and thirty-five days, at the end of which she gives herself to him. Of these periods we know only the length, then, of the first and the last.

    The first began on the 30th March and lasted till the 12th April, , when the second began, to last how long? Well, at least two months, it seems, [] perhaps [38] three.

    In that case all three periods belong to the same year. If this be not so, the second period was of longer duration than three months, perhaps much longer. Boccaccio himself tells us that it was "non senza molto affanno lunga stagione. He can scarcely have hoped to seduce a woman of his own class in less time. Common sense, then, is on our side when reminding ourselves that Maria d'Aquino was of the noblest family, married, too, to a husband who loved her, and generally courted by all the golden youth of Naples—while Giovanni was the son of a merchant—we insist that he cannot mean a paltry three months when he speaks of a long time.

    Della Torre seems to have found a clue in the following sonnet, whose authenticity, though doubted by Crescini, [] he insists upon:—. A condolermi de' miei stessi inganni In Boccaccio and Fiammetta had parted, [] Boccaccio having been "betrayed" by her, as he tells us in Sonnets iv. But we know from Sonnets xlvii. So we believe that the first period "of uncertainty" in his love began on 30th March and ended on 12th April, ; that the second period "of service" began on 12th April, , and ended between 3rd June and [40] 2nd July, , when the third period began, ending three years later.

    This third period is divided, as we have seen, into three parts, and comprises three bathing seasons. The first of these falls between 3rd June—2nd July, , and the 17th October to 15th November, i. The second is a period in which their love had become calmer: it fills the season of in which he was her cavaliere servente. The third falls in , when, probably on account of the suspicions aroused by their intimacy, Fiammetta forbade him to accompany her to Baia, where in his absence she "betrayed" him.

    Having thus found a chronology of Boccaccio's love-story, we must consider more particularly his life during its three periods. Of the first period of Giovanni's love-story, the period of uncertainty which lasted but twelve days, we know almost nothing, save that he was used to remind himself very often of his unworthiness, and to tell himself that he was only the son of a merchant, while Fiammetta, it was said, was the daughter of a king, and at any rate belonged to one of the richest and most powerful families in the Kingdom.

    That she was married does not seem to have distressed him or appeared as an obstacle at all, for the court was corrupt; [] but he seems to have been disturbed by the knowledge that she was surrounded by a hundred adorers richer, nobler, and with better opportunities than himself. And so he seems to have come to the conclusion that there was nothing to be done but to make fun of himself for having entertained a thought of her.

    It was apparently in these states of mind that he passed the days from Holy Saturday to 12th April, , when he found suddenly to his surprise that she was content he should love her if he would.

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    What happened is described in the forty-fourth chapter of the Amorosa Visione. The twelve days were passed, [42] he tells us in this allegory, when he heard a voice like a terrible thunder cry to him:—. How can we interpret this? It seems that there was evidently an occasion in which Fiammetta gave him to understand that she was not averse from his love. What was this occasion? Della Torre [] —certainly the most subtle and curious of his interpreters—thinks he has found it: that he can identify it with that in which Fiammetta bade him write the Filocolo.

    In the prologue to that romance Boccaccio tells us that after leaving the temple of S.

    Lorenzo with full heart, and having sighed many days, he found himself by chance—he does not remember how—with some companions " in un santo tempio del Principe de' celestiali uccelli nominato ": that is to say, as Casetti interprets it, in the convent of S. Arcangelo a Baiano, where Fiammetta had been. I have said that it was quite usual for nuns to receive visitors, both men and women, from the outside; the Fiammetta [] itself confirms it if need be. The convents were in some sort fashionable resorts where one went to spend an hour in talk.


    On some such occasion Boccaccio went to S. Arcangelo with a friend, and finding Fiammetta there, probably told her stories from the French romances "del valoroso giovane Florio figliuolo di Felice grandissimo Re di Spagna," or of Lancelot and Guinivere, "con amorose parole," stuffed with piteous words. When he had [43] finished, she, altogether charmed, turned to the young poet and bade him write such a romance as that—for her—"a little book in which the beginning of love, the courtship, and the fortune of the two lovers even to their death shall be told.

    The first result of this interview and of the hope and fear it gave him—for whatever may have been the case with Fiammetta now and later, Giovanni was genuinely in love—was that he wandered away "dall' usato cammino" from the highway that had brought him so far and abandoned "le imprese cose," things already begun. About this time, then, he began to go more to court, to enter eagerly into the joy of Neapolitan life in search of Fiammetta.

    At the same time his studies suffered—he neglected them to the dismay, as we shall see, not only of his father, but of his friends. Something has already been said of the life at the court of King Robert. The merchants of Florence, Lucca, Venice, and Genoa furnished to the court "scarlatti di Gant," "sciamiti, panni ricamati ad uso orientale," "oggetti d' oro ed argento," and " gemmas et lapides pretiosas ad camere regie usum.

    Le giovani donne di queste cose vaghe, inghirlandate di nuove frondi, lieti sguardi porgevano ai loro amanti, ora dall' alte finestre ed ora dalle basse porte; e quale con nuovo dono, e quale con sembiante, e quale con parole confortava il suo del suo amore. If he thus spent his time in play and love there can have been little enough left, when the Filocolo was laid aside, for study. We find his father complaining of his slackness. Old Boccaccio had already been grievously disappointed when Giovanni abandoned trade, and now that he threw up or was not eager to pursue his law studies, he was both distressed and angry; nor were Giovanni's friends more content.

    All the Florentines at Naples, he tells us, seemed to speak with his father's voice. It was well to be in love, they told him, even better to write poetry, but to ruin oneself for love, Monna mia!


    So spoke and thought the practical Tuscan soul, and the English have but echoed it for centuries. However, Giovanni only immersed himself more in Ovid, and doubtless the throb of hexameter and pentameter silenced the prose of the merchants. Later, about , he began to read Petrarch; [] their personal friendship, however, did [46] not begin till much later, in How he praises her!

    Vedete se son folli i pensier miei! Presumptuous or no, he tells us very eloquently and sweetly that her teeth were candid Eastern pearls, her lips, living rubies clear and red, her cheeks, roses mixed with lilies, her hair, all gold like an aureole about her happy face:—. Di costei ch' i ver angioli simiglia. Par s' apra 'l cielo e rida il mundo tutto. But he speaks of her beauty in a thousand verses in a thousand places, in many disguises.

    This burning and eager love was, however, hindered in one thing—he had the greatest difficulty in seeing Fiammetta:—. For at this time certainly Fiammetta does not seem to have [47] considered his love of any importance to her, so that she gave him very few opportunities of seeing her, and then in everything he had to be careful not to rouse her husband's suspicions.

    Qual men dorriemi il vivere o 'l morire.